Saturday, 23 June 2012

Composition of Air

Average composition of earth's atmosphere ( up to an altitude of 25 km)
  • Nitrogen                 78.09%
  • Oxygen                   20.95%
  • Argon                       0.93%
  • Carbon dioxide        0.039%
and trace amount of other gases including Neon, Helium, Methane, Krypton, Hydrogen
Nitrous oxide, Carbon monoxide, Xenon, Ozone, Nitrogen dioxide, Iodine, Ammonia etc.  

Schematic diagram


'Broken Symmetry' at subatomic level

                                                      Nobel Prize in Physics (2008)

  • "Yoichiro Nambu" [Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago] for the discovery of the  mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics  

  • "Makoto Kobayashi" [Japan's High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)] and 

  • "Toshihide Maskawa" [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP) at Kyoto University] for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.

Courtesy: ScienceDaily (Oct. 7, 2008)

Friday, 22 June 2012

Some of the Pioneers in Modern Chemistry


Branches of Chemistry:

  1. Inorganic chemistry
  2. Organic chemistry
  3. Physical chemistry  and
  4. Theoretical chemistry.
Apart from these major classifications, there are other popular subdivisions too. Some of those, including modern and interdisciplinary branches, are entitled as
  • Analytical chemistry
  • Applied chemistry: oils and fats
  • Astrochemistry
  • Atmospheric chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Click chemistry
  • Computational chemistry
  • Electro chemistry
  • Environmental chemistry
  • Femto chemistry
  • Food chemistry
  • Geochemistry
  • Green chemistry
  • Hydrochemistry
  • Material chemistry
  • Magneto chemistry
  • Medicinal chemistry
  • Nanochemistry
  • Natural product chemistry
  • Nuclear chemistry 
  • Organometallic chemistry
  • Petrochemistry
  • Pharmaceutical chemistry
  • Photochemistry
  • Polymer chemistry
  • Solid state chemistry
  • Synthetic chemistry
  • Supra molecular chemistry
  • Surface chemistry
  • Thermo chemistry   and so on.

Thursday, 21 June 2012

Earlier Concepts:

Plato figured out that particles had regular mathematical shape. The polyhedra are, generally, called regular platonic solids. For e.g., earth was a cube, air was an octahedron etc. The flat faces of each of these shapes can be made from two kinds of triangle. According to Plato, these triangles are the fundamental particles of nature. They pervade all space. The elements are converted by rearranging the triangles into new geometric form.

Message from Bhagavath Geetha
  • Do not get over excited over happiness and do not get over depressed over sorrow.
  • Do not get over bonded with anyone and anybody because it can lead to problems and sorrow.
  • Never think that my duty is the topmost or lowermost. Every duty is respectful. The responsibility undertaken or given as per the position is the noblest duty.
  • Elevate yourselves, family, society and nation and never denigrate yourselves, family, society and nation.
  • We are our own closest relatives and if not properly utilised we will become our closest enemies.
  • There are possibilities of success and failure in any endeavour. One cannot assure success always.
  • Death is inevitable for everyone in this world. In any endeavour at the maximum an individual may die.
  • People may say good and also they may say bad. Approach them with stabilised mind.
  • Take anything after scientifically, logically and rationally analysing them.
  • Perform your duty, responsibility and accept the privileges eligible for you.
  • First change ourselves and then try to change others.
  • We are all instruments /tools in the hands of the nature for performing the duty. So do not think that I am doing the duty. Think that I am an instrument to do the duty.
  • Results of action may not be sweet always. Accept what ever may be the result.
  • Follow the path of great scholars who guided the world. Listen their messages.
  • Results and rewards will come and go but stick to your duty with devotion, dedication and sincerity.